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HSG
5th June 2006, 22:44
<br>In this, the fourth in our five-part series examining Medieval Beauty, we come to <strong>Guillaume de Machaut</strong>, whom R. Barton Palmer deems <i>"undoubtedly the most renowned and influential poet of fourteenth-century France"</i> (xiii).

Machaut spent many years in the service of the famous Jean l'Aveugle of Luxembourg, the King of Bohemia, whose real-life exploits were as exciting as those of any fictional hero of the Middle Ages. Like a true warrior prince, Jean l'Aveugle engaged in numerous military ventures throughout his lifetime, and died a noble death, valianty leading a cavalry charge into the thick of battle, even though advancing age had rendered him blind.

Machaut paid tribute to his distinguished patron by making him a character in his most famous poem, and even titling the work in his honour. But in Machaut's <strong><i>Le Jugement dou Roy de Behaingne</i></strong> ("The Judgment of the King of Bohemia"), dated 1342, the judgment that the king renders does not pertain to matters of the sword, but of the heart.

The poem begins with a forest encounter between two strangers, a knight and a lady. Both are deep in the throes of grief, and inquire about each other's woes.

The lady relates that her lover, the noblest of all men, has recently died, leaving her deep in mourning, and enduring the greatest suffering imaginable.

But the knight replies that his anguish is more acute, because his own love--the fairest of all maidens--has forsaken him for another. The knight claims that his pain is more intense because, while the lady's memory of her dead husband will eventually fade, lessening her grief, his unfaithful beloved is still alive--and therefore, he must live with the persistent, excruciating awareness that she is bestowing her affections on someone else.

The pair take their dispute about whose agony is worse to the King of Bohemia, and the king judges that the suffering of the knight is indeed greater.

Readers of the poem are never surprised by the king's decision, however, because the knight's description of his former lover's beauty is so rapturous, that the reader can well imagine how bitter would be the loss of such an incomparable goddess.

Alas, no truly poetic translation of <i>Le Jugement dou Roy de Behaingne</i> has ever found its way into print. But even in the rather literal rendering below, Machaut's evocative imagery shines through.

The knight's description of his beloved proceeds as follows:

<blockquote><i><dl><dd>. . . to tell the truth
<dt><strong>No one could find in all the world
<dt>Her equal</strong>, nor could the whole world itself suffice
<dt>To describe her beauty

<dd>Perfectly.
<dt>For I saw her <strong>dance</strong> so graciously,
<dt>And sing with such great joy,
<dt>Laugh and play so graciously</dl><p><center><img src="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/medieval/medieval22a.jpg" alt="Valerie Lefkowitz in ''Figure'' magazine, 2003"></center><p><dl><dd>That never yet
<dt>Was ever seen a more elegant treasure.
<dt>For her hair resembled <strong>threads of gold</strong> . . .</dl><p><center><img src="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/medieval/medieval19.jpg" alt="Amber Cather modelling for UllaPopken.de, Fall 2006 preview (if only she were truly plus!)"></center><p><dl><dd>But her little mouth
<dt>Was just small enough, rose-colored, a bit rounded,
<dt>Always smiling, delicious, and sweet;
<dt>It makes me languish when my heart mourns her . . .

<dd>When she smiled
<dt>Her cheeks, which were <strong>pink and white
<dt>And a little plump</strong>, made two dimples,
<dt>Which increased her beauty . . .</dl><p><center><a href="http://www.torrid.com/store/product.asp?LS=0&RN=204&ITEM=594041" target="_blank"><img src="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/medieval/medieval23a.jpg" alt="Christina Schmidt modelling for Torrid, Winter 2005" border="0"></a></center><p><dl><dd>And even more:
<dt>Her teeth were white, small, and even,
<dt>And her <strong>chin was a little wide,
<dt>Rounded underneath</strong> and above . . .</dl><p><center><img src="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/medieval/medieval28c.jpg" alt="Megan Garcia in the plus-size style guide ''Figure It Out''"></center><p><dl><dd>Wondrous indeed
<dt>Was her complexion, unlike all others,
<dt>For it was vibrant, <strong>fresh, and rosy</strong>,
<dt>More so than any rose in May before it's picked;</dl><p><center><img src="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/medieval/medieval25.jpg" alt="Charlotte Coyle on the Torrid cover, November 2005"></center><p><dl><dd>And, in a few words,
<dt><strong>White as snow, smooth, pleasantly plump
<dt>Was her throat</strong>, and without any wrinkle <strong>or bone</strong>;
<dt>Her neck was beautiful, which I prize and praise.</dl><p><center><a href="http://www.torrid.com/store/product.asp?LS=0&M=1421859962&RN=216&ITEM=593850" target="_blank"><img src="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/medieval/medieval21.jpg" alt="Kelsey Olson modelling for Torrid, Summer 2006" border="0"></a></center><p><dl><dd>Without a flaw
<dt>Her body was rightly formed,
<dt>Noble, well-shaped, pretty, young, genteel, <strong>plump</strong> . . .</dl><p><center><img src="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/medieval/medieval26.jpg" alt="Unidentified model for www.christina.ca plus-size swimwear"></center><p><dl><dd>Her delicate skin
<dt>Was <strong>white and soft</strong>, more than all else
<dt>It shone, so that one marvelled at it;
<dt>Flaw or fault was there none, only goodness.</dl><p><center><img src="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/medieval/medieval20.jpg" alt="Kailee O'Sullivan modelling Laura Plus promwear"></center><p><dl><dd>And to tell the truth
<dt>She was so beautiful (I hold this most firmly)
<dt>That, if Nature, who makes all things craftily,
<dt>Wished to make another just like her
<dd>She would fail.</dl><p><center><img src="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/medieval/medieval27a.jpg" alt="Shannon Marie modelling for Dillard's--still the loveliest of all plus-size models, whose appearance exhibited every single attribute of ideal beauty"></center><p><dl><dt>And never would she know how to do it
<dt>If she did not have <strong>this one as a model</strong>,
<dt>Who surpasses all others in beauty.</i> (ll. 284-403)</dl></blockquote><p><center>* * *</center><p>Needless to say, the knight's description of his erstwhile lady confirms her as another definitive example of the timeless ideal of feminine beauty, akin to the goddesses who appear in the works of other medieval poets such as <a href="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/board/showthread.php?t=362" target="_blank">Matthew of Vendôme</a>, <a href="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/board/showthread.php?t=372" target="_blank">Guillaume de Lorris</a>, and <a href="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/board/showthread.php?t=390" target="_blank">Boccaccio</a>.

Like her aesthetic predecessors, she possess abundant blonde tresses ("threads of gold"), fair skin ("white and soft," "pink," "rosy"), and, of course, a well-fed appearance, manifesting itself both in her figure ("plump"), and in her facial features ("pleasantly plump / Was her throat, and without any wrinkle <strong>or bone</strong>"; "her chin was a little wide, / Rounded underneath").

The prose translations of <i>Le Jugement dou Roy de Behaingne</i> highlight Machaut's emphasis on the latter features. Windeatt's translation reads, <i>"Her throat was white as snow, smooth, beautifully proportioned--there was not a line in it, <strong>nor any sign of a bone</strong></i>" (8-9), and in Wimsatt's version, the lady's chin is deemed <i>"gently curved below"</i> (76). This praise of "curved" and "rounded" lower facial features turns up again in the next century, in Firenzuola's <a href="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/board/showthread.php?t=279" target="_blank">Renaissance</a> beauty manual, which asserts that when a lady's chin will <i>"slope toward the throat and <strong>run into a slight rise</strong>, it gains in overall beauty"</i>--so much so, that Firenzuola deems this <i>"the foremost ornament"</i> in full-figured women (60).

The concurrent descriptions of ideal feminine beauty in these medieval texts constitute a specific aesthetic ideal--a timeless ideal, one which both preceded and succeeded the Middle Ages, and remained dominant until the 20th century.

Therefore, instead of trying to emulate the appearance of modern straight-size models, who personify an alien aesthetic that is the exact opposite of medieval beauty (an aesthetic of narrow faces, jutting bones, overtanned leatherish skin, and masculinized, ropy-muscled "toned" figures--none of which is the least bit attractive, no matter how insistently the media tries to pretend that it is), today's plus-size models should take pride in embodying a timeless image of beauty that reflects the natural human ideal of feminine appearance.

<strong>.................

References:</strong>

Firenzuola, Agnolo. <i>On the Beauty of Women.</i> Ed. and trans. Konrad Eisenbichler and Jacquiline Murray. Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P, 1992.

Machaut, Guillaume de. <i>The Judgment of the King of Bohemia.</i> c.1342. Ed. and trans. R. Barton Palmer. New York: Garland, 1984.

Machaut, Guillaume de. <i>Le Jugement dou Roy de Behaingne.</i> c.1342. <i>Chaucer's Dream Poetry: Sources and Analogues.</i> Ed. and trans. B.A. Windeatt. Cambridge: D.S. Brewer, 1982. 3-25.

Machaut, Guillaume de. <i>Le Jugement du Roy de Behaigne.</i> c.1342. <i>Le Jugement du Roy de Behaigne and Remede de Fortune.</i> Eds. James I. Wimsatt and William W. Kibler. Athens, GA: U of Georgia P, 1988. 59–165.

Emily
7th June 2006, 01:30
I am finding this entire Medieval Beauty series incredibly inspiring.

Some of the characteristics that were so highly praised in the Middle Ages are still considered emblems of beauty, such as golden hair, while others, such as a fair complexion, are in a tug-of-war with the toasted look that comes out of L.A.

But it's such a revelation to discover that a full figure, and specifically plus-looking physical features, such as a plump neckline rather than a jutting collarbone, or a soft, rounded chin, were once just as emblematic of ideal beauty as blue eyes or blonde hair. I wish more plus-size models exhibited these distinctly plus traits. And I've noticed that the most popular models are those who do.

The fact that these soft, full features were praised throughout the centuries shows just how arbitrary and unnatural the present-day fetishization of thinness really is. Plus-size beauty is the historic norm.