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HSG
2nd November 2006, 20:05
<br>No period in history is as regularly misrepresented and misunderstood as is the Victorian Era.

Postmodernists (resentful of its accomplishments, and shamed by its glory) construe it as some sort of priggish, enervated time, in stark contrast to its actual character as an age that was dominated by Romantic Idealism, that brought Western culture to its fulfillment, that saw Europe spread civilization over the globe, and that saw painting, music, poetry, architecture, science, and history flourish as never before.

How could an era that gave birth to the lush harmonies of Wagner, the grandeur of Historicist architecture, the brilliance of Nietzsche's philosophy, and the boldness of Darwin's theories, ever have been distorted into the tepid caricature that it currently resembles? A reassessment of Victorian culture is long overdue.

Of course, the Victorian Era is only referred to as such in Britain, where Queen Victoria reigned over the British Empire for most of the 19th century. But whatever the period is named, the 1800s saw Western culture reach its climax--a zenith from which our modern age has been a tragic falling off.

In our recent discussions of the legacy of feminine aesthetics, we noted how the ideal of female beauty remained remarkably consistent throughout Western history, from the time of the <a href="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/board/showthread.php?t=289" target="_blank">Greeks</a>, to the <a href="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/board/showthread.php?t=453" target="_blank">Romans</a>, to the <a href="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/board/showthread.php?t=468" target="_blank">Middle Ages</a>, and through the <a href="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/board/showthread.php?t=279" target="_blank">Renaissance</a>. The same characteristics that defined womanly beauty for the Ancients defined it for millennia afterwards, right up until beauty itself came under assault in the modernist era.

The definitive study of the feminine ideal of the 1800s was undoubtedly Alexander Walker's magnum opus, <i>Beauty,</i> which first appeared in 1836 (a year before Victoria ascended the British throne), and went through numerous editions throughout the 19th century.<p><center><img src="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/victorian/walker39b.gif"></center><p>And how was ideal femininity construed in the Victorian Era? Readers of this forum will not be surprised to learn that the same characteristics that defined womanly allure in earlier periods of Western history defined it in this age, as well.

Furthermore, in true Victorian fashion, (for this was history's greatest Museum Age--a time when the natural world was classified and studied as never before, with hitherto unknown precision,) feminine beauty was scrutinized in its minutest particulars in the 19th century. Writers such as Walker merged the rich tradition of Western Idealism with the latest discoveries in the natural sciences, to reconcile the timeless aesthetic of full-figured femininity with man's newly-discovered position within the animal order.

In his profoundly influential study, Walker links art with anthropology, philosophy with biology, to provide history's richest-ever analysis of feminine comeliness--a vertiable British Museum of Beauty. What Firenzuola's <i>On the Beauty of Woman</i> was to the Renaissance, Alexander Walker's <i>Beauty</i> was to the Victorian age.<p><center>* * *</center><p>Our study of Victorian Beauty will comprise two parts. In this first thread, we will present a comprehensive picture of the aesthetic ideal that Walker outlines, in rich detail.

In a future post, we will discuss the philosophical significance that Walker assigns to feminine beauty, and how writers of his age merged aspects of the Western philosophical tradition--from Neoplatonism to Idealism--with 19th-century advances in anthropology, to ascertain its deeper meaning. However, even in these short prose descriptions, readers will notice how the Victorians juxtaposed poetic terms with physiological and anthropological descriptions in delinating the characteristics of womanly allure.

We will commence with Walker's general remarks on feminine beauty, then progresses through his descriptions of the particular traits that define the timeless ideal (fair complexion, fullness of figure, round facial features, golden tresses, soft skin, and light-coloured eyes). We will also note Walker's explanation of how soft fullness is essential for preserving a youthful appearance, along with his juxtaposition of feminine beauty with the masculine sublime. Finally, we will observe several characteristics that Walker and the Victorians identified as <i>defects</i> of feminine beauty (i.e., "body flaws"), and discover how these deformities are the precise features that most media celebrities exhibit today.

And now, without further ado, here is an extensive selection from Alexander Walker's Victorian-era aesthetic guide, <i>Beauty.</i><p><center>* * *</center><p><blockquote><strong>GENERAL DESCRIPTION:</strong>

<i>Her face is generally <strong>round</strong>; her eyes are generally of the softest azure;</i><p><center><img src="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/victorian/walker03.jpg" alt="Kat (Hughes Models), test image; Kat is regrettably a faux-plus model, but her facial features provide a shining example of timeless beauty"></center><p><i>her neck is often rather short; her shoulders are softly rounded, and owe any breadth they may possess rather to the expanded chest, than to the size of the shoulders themselves; her bosom, in its luxuriance, seems laterally to protrude on the space occupied by the arms;</i><p><center><a href="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/victorian/walker04.jpg" target="_blank"><img src="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/victorian/walker04a.jpg" border="0" alt="Unidentified www.christina.ca swimwear model; click to enlarge"></a></center><p><i>her waist, though sufficiently marked, is, as it were, encroached on the by the embonpoint of all the contiguous parts;</i><p><center><a href="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/victorian/walker05.jpg" target="_blank"><img src="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/victorian/walker05a.jpg" border="0" alt="Tari Potruff (size 14), JE Models, San Francisco; click to enlarge"></a></center><p><i>her [hips] are greatly expanded; her thighs are large in proportion;</i><p><center><img src="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/victorian/walker06.jpg" alt="Ashely, finalist in the ''Full-Figured Top Moded'' search, on The Tyra Banks Show"></center><p><i>but her limbs and arms, tapering and becoming delicate terminate in feet and hands which, compared with the ample trunk, are peculiarly small; her complexion has <strong>the rose and lily so exquisitely blended</i></strong>,<p><center><a href="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/victorian/walker07.jpg" target="_blank"><img src="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/victorian/walker07a.jpg" border="0" alt="Lillian Russell; click to enlarge"></a></center><p><i>that we are surprised it should defy the usual operation fo the elements; and she boasts a luxuriant profusion of soft and fine flaxen or auburn hair.</i><p><center><a href="http://www1.macys.com/catalog/product/index.ognc?ID=216606&CategoryID=21614&LinkType=EverGreen" target="_blank"><img src="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/victorian/walker08a.jpg" border="0" alt="Amber Cather, Wilhelmina; Amber is the industry's most beautiful faux-plus model, and fans continue to hope that someday, she might blossom into a size 14+ full-figured goddess"></a></center><p><i>The whole figure is soft and voluptuous in the extreme.</i> (141)<p><center><img src="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/victorian/walker37.jpg" border="0" alt="Christina Schmidt, in a screen capture from an episode of ''Degrassi: The Next Generation'' (Season 3)"></center><p><i>In general, woman is not only less in stature, and different in her general proportions, but her haunches are more apart, her hips more elevated, her abdomen larger,</i><p><center><img src="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/victorian/walker09.jpg" alt="Valerie Lefkowitz modelling for Junonia"></center><p><i>her members more rounded, her soft parts less compact, her forms more softened, her traits finer. During youth, especially, and among civilised nations woman is further distinguished by the softness,</i><p><center><a href="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/victorian/walker47.jpg" target="_blank"><img src="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/victorian/walker47a.jpg" border="0" alt="Rachel Wakulchyk (Irene Marie, Miami; size 14) modelling for Fashion Bug"></a></center><p><i>the smoothness, the delicacy, and the polish of all the forms, by the gradual and easy transitions between all the parts, by the number and the harmony of the undulating lines which these present in every view, by the beautiful outline of the reliefs, and by the fineness and the animation of the skin. . . . All these circumstances indicate very clearly the passive state to which nature has destined woman . . . </i>(161)<p><center><img src="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/victorian/walker10.jpg" alt="Justine Legault, size 14; Ford Toronto/Scoop Models Montreal; test image"></center><p><i>The waist, which is most distinctly marked in the back and loins, owes all its advantages to its elegance, softness, and flexibility.</i><p><center><img src="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/victorian/walker11.jpg" alt="Charlotte Coyle on the Torrid.com cover page"></center><p><i>The neck should, by the gentlest curvature, form an almost insensible transition between the body and the head. It should also present <strong>fulness sufficient to conceal the projection of the flute part of the throat</strong> in front, and of the two large muscles which descent from behind the ears toward the pit above the breast bone.</i><p><center><a href="http://www.torrid.com/store/product.asp?LS=0&RN=206&ITEM=523812" target="_blank"><img src="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/victorian/walker24.jpg" alt="Kelsey Olson modelling for Torrid; click to view image source" border="0"></a></center><p><i>Over all these parts, the predominance of the cellular tissue, and the soft and moderate plumpness which is connected with it, is a remarkable characteristic of the vital system in woman.</i><p><center><a href="http://www.alfredangelo.com/index.cfm/fuseAction/COLLECTIONS.productDetail/fromAdvancedSearch/0/productID/ef3c1e6c-e218-46a9-ab74-e759285ca5fe/categoryID/772F03C9-DE43-4942-BFA0-DA77E21EBD65" target="_blank"><img src="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/victorian/walker32.jpg" border="0" alt="Kati Kochanski modelling for Alfred Angelo"></a></center><p><i>While this facilitates the adaptation of the locomotive system to every change, it at the same time <strong>obliterates the projection of the muscles</strong>, and invests the whole figure with rounded and beautiful forms. . . .</i><p><center><img src="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/victorian/walker13.jpg" alt="Anjie H., size 14, Ford Toronto"></center><p><i>To this class belong all the more feminine, soft, and passively voluptuous women. . . . The kind of beauty characterised by them is seen chiefly in the Saxon races of our eastern coast; and it is certainly more frequent in women of short stature. </i>(211-13)<p><center><img src="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/victorian/walker14.jpg" alt="Kailee O'Sullivan modelling for Laura Plus, Prom 2006"></center>


<strong>FAIR COMPEXION:</strong>

<i>. . . To illustrate this, it will be sufficient to examine their most striking and distinctive characteristic—namely, their fair complexion, which is intimately connected with all their other characteristics, and which gives increased splendour and effect to their form and features. </i>(183)<p><center><a href="http://www.torrid.com/store/product.asp?LS=0&RN=204&ITEM=518314" target="_blank"><img src="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/victorian/walker25c.jpg" alt="Kelsey Olson modelling for Torrid; click to view image source" border="0"></a></center><p><i>Independendly of this, white, as every one is aware, is the colour which reflects the greatest number of luminous rays; and, for that reason, it bestows the brilliance and splendour upon beautiful forms with which all are charmed. </i>(184)<p><center><img src="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/victorian/walker29.jpg" border="0" alt="Shannon Marie; tear sheet from ''Mode'' magazine"></center><p><i>The whiteness, the transparency, and the colour of the skin have, in all highly civilised nations, been deemed essential conditions of beauty. The ancients regarded whiteness, in particular, as the distinctive character of beauty; and they estimated that character so highly, that the name of Venus from the Celtic </i>ven, ben,<i> or </i>ban,<i> signifies white, or whiteness; and Venus herself is said to be fair and golden haired.</i><p><center><img src="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/victorian/walker34.jpg" border="0" alt="Kailee O'Sullivan modelling for Laura Plus, Prom 2006"></center><p><i>Among the civilised moderns, also, a taste which women seek always to satisfy, is that for whiteness of the skin; hence the white lily, new fallen snow, white marble, or alabaster, are the images which poetry employs, when the colour of a woman is its subject. </i>(220)<p><center><img src="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/victorian/walker30.jpg" alt="Louise (Hughes Models), test image; Louise is regrettably a faux-plus model, but her facial features provide a shining example of timeless beauty"></center><p><i>As to colour of the face, it may be observed that the forehead, the temples, the eyelids, the nose, the upper part of the superior lip, and the lower part of the inferior lip, ought in woman to be of a beautiful and rather opaque white. The approach to the cheeks and the middle of the chin ought to have a slight tint of rose colour, and the middle of the cheeks ought to be altogether rosy, but of a delicate hue.—Cheeks of an animated white are preferable to those of a red colour, although less beautiful than those of a rosy hue. </i>(259)<p><center><img src="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/victorian/walker22.jpg" border="0" alt="Charlotte Coyle modelling for Torrid"></center>


<strong>SOFT FULLNESS OF FIGURE:</strong>

<i>It follows, from all that has been here said, and this has been shown by Burke, that any rugged, any sudden projection, any sharp angle, is in the highest degree contrary to the idea of beauty. </i>(72)<p><center><img src="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/victorian/walker54.jpg" alt="Megan Garcia in ''Glamour'' magazine"></center><p><i>. . . female perfection is utterly <strong>incompatible with great muscular perfection or strength</strong>, which would indeed be injurious to the performance of every feminine function. </i>(95)<p><center><img src="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/victorian/walker41.jpg" alt="Valerie Lefkowitz modelling for Junonia"></center><p><i>It is evidently the nutritive or vital system which is highly developed in the beauty whose figure is soft and voluptuous. </i>(152)<p><center><img src="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/victorian/walker26.jpg" border="0" alt="Megan Garcia"></center><p><i>From this it follows that woman never enjoys existence better, than when a moderate plumpness bestows on her organs . . . all the suppleness of which they are capable.</i><p><center><a href="http://www.alfredangelo.com/index.cfm/fuseAction/COLLECTIONS.productDetail/fromAdvancedSearch/0/productID/4aeb91d3-0f7b-4b41-b105-e7f5b455bf9a/categoryID/1af402e9-205f-4b7b-9d22-6fec77b3d187" target="_blank"><img src="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/victorian/walker32a.jpg" border="0" alt="Kati Kochanski (Irene Marie, Miami; size 14) modelling for Alfred Angelo"></a></center><p><i>A second physical quality, which concurs to render more mobile the various parts of woman, is their softness. </i>(162)<p><center><a href="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/victorian/walker27.jpg" target="_blank"><img src="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/victorian/walker27a.jpg" border="0" alt="Unidentified www.christina.ca swimwear model; click to enlarge"></a></center><p><i>. . . the vital or nutritive system everywhere presents soft forms, and rounds both body and limbs . . . </i>(267)<p><center><img src="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/victorian/walker32b.jpg" border="0" alt="Kati Kochanski (Irene Marie, Miami; size 14) modelling for Fashion Bug"></center><p><i>The whiteness and the animation of the skin, however, do not alone constitute its beauty: there is still another quality which is absolutely necessary to it. This is the softness and the polish which, as the reader has seen, is one of the first conditions of physical beauty. </i>(224)<p><center><img src="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/victorian/walker40b.jpg" alt="Justine Legault, size 14; Ford Toronto/Scoop Models Montreal; test image"></center>


<strong>ROUND FACIAL FEATURES:</strong>

<i>Woman presents very little prominence of the frontal sinuses; the cheek-bones display beautiful curves; the edges of the alveoli containing the teeth are much more elliptical than in man; and the chin is softly rounded. . . .</i><p><center><img src="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/victorian/walker53.jpg" alt="Christina Schmidt, in a still image from ''Degrassi: The Next Generation'' (Season 3)"></center><p><i>In woman especially, the chin ought to be finely rounded . . . </i>(257)<p><center><a href="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/victorian/walker15.jpg" target="_blank"><img src="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/victorian/walker15a.jpg" alt="''Seventeen'' magazine model named ''Elle'' (size 14 @ 5'3); click to enlarge" border="0"></a></center><p><i>In woman, the countenance is more rounded, as well as more abundantly furnished with that cellular and [plump] tissue which fills all the chasms, effaces all the angles, and unites all the parts by the gentlest transitions. </i>(258)<p><center><img src="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/victorian/walker16.jpg" border="0" alt="Shannon Marie modelling for Fashion Bug"></center>


<strong>GOLDEN TRESSES:</strong>

<i>The quantity and the colour of the hair is always in relation to the constitution of the individual to which it belongs, and generally to the temperature of the place. The people of northern countries have the hair of a silky fineness and of surprising length. The hair which is most admired is not only very fine and flexible, but light coloured. Fair golden hair was, of all its tints, that which the ancient artists preferred. </i>(225)<p><center><a href="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/victorian/walker35.jpg" target="_blank"><img src="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/victorian/walker35a.jpg" alt="Kelsey Olson, test image by Stanley Debas; click to enlarge" border="0"></a></center><p><i>The hair affords an excellent instance of this agreeable complication. Soft curls agitated by the wind have been the theme of every poet. </i>(91-92)<p><center><img src="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/victorian/walker51.jpg" alt="Ann Nichole; Benina and Lu model of several years ago"></center><p><i>"A fair hue . . ." says Winckelmann, "has ever been regarded as the most beautiful; and flaxen coloured hair was assigned to the most beautiful . . ." </i>(260)<p><center><img src="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/victorian/walker17.jpg" alt="Amber Cather modelling for Ulla Popken; Amber is the industry's most beautiful faux-plus model, and fans continue to hope that someday, she might blossom into a size 14+ full-figured goddess"></center>


<strong>DELICATE SKIN:</strong>

<i>A thinner skin permits to the touch of woman more vivacity, delicacy, and profoundness. It seizes the details which generally escape the touch of man. It is more easily hurt by hard, rough and angular, cold or hot, bodies. Hence woman requires vestments which are light and smooth;</i><p><center><a href="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/pinacotheca/vernon01.htm" target="_blank"><img src="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/victorian/walker23.jpg" border="0" alt="Click for more information"></a></center><p><i>and she enjoys more than man the pleasure of reposing on flocculent substances which softly resist her pressure. </i>(251)<p><center><a href="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/pinacotheca/chaplin01.htm" target="_blank"><img src="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/victorian/walker01.jpg" border="0" alt="Click for more information"></a></center>


<strong>LIGHT-COLOURED EYES:</strong>

<i>In woman, however, the most beautiful eyes, in relation to colour, are those which appear to be blue [or] hazel . . . </i>(254)<p><center><a href="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/victorian/walker21.jpg" target="_blank"><img src="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/victorian/walker21a.jpg" border="0" alt="Berry (Ford Models); who is beautiful, but so thin that she cannot even justifiably be deemed a faux-plus model; rather, she is simply an attractive straight-size model; click to enlarge"></a></center><p><i>"The eyes of Venus," says Winckelmann, "are smaller, and the slight elevation of the lower eyelid produces that languishing look [admired] by the Greeks . . ." To give this expression of gladness or of pleasure, the <strong>opening of the eyelids is diminished</strong>, in order to diminish, or partially to exclude, the excess of those impressions, which make even pleasure painful. </i>(341)<p><center><img src="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/victorian/walker02.jpg" alt="Sophie Dahl in 1997, which she exhibited the soft fullness of a plus-size model"></center><p><i>Withal, the look is amorous and languishing, without being lascivious, and is as powerfully marked by gay coquetry, as by charming innocence. </i>(344)<p><center><a href="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/victorian/walker48.jpg" target="_blank"><img src="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/victorian/walker48a.jpg" border="0" alt="Victoria Lewis (Ford 12+), ad in ''Figure'' magazine"></a></center>


<strong>FULLNESS AS PRESERVER OF YOUTH:</strong>

<i>These lines very under different circumstances: much embonpoint produces round lines, and <strong>leanness or old age producing straight ones</strong>. </i>(90)<p><center><img src="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/victorian/walker38.jpg" alt="Heather Shantora, size 14, Ford Toronto, modelling for Cotton Ginny Plus"></center><p><i>Impassioned women, on the contrary, do not so long preserve their freshness: the expansive force, from which the organs derived their form and colouring, abates; and a less agreeable flaccidity succeeds to the elasticity with which they were endowed, if the plumpness which adult age commonly brings does not sustain them. </i>(165)<p><center><img src="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/victorian/walker43.jpg" alt="Natalie Hull, illustration from the book ''Big Girl Knits''"></center><p><i>At this period, in well-constituted women, the [plumpness], being absorbed with less activity, is accumulated in the cellular tissue under the skin and elsewhere; and this effaces any wrinkles which might have begun to furrow the skin, rounds the outline anew, and again <strong>restores and air of youth and freshness</strong>. Hence this period is called "the age of return." This plumpness, though juvenile lightness and freshness be wanting, sustains the forms, and sometimes confers a majestic air . . . </i>(166-67)<p><center><img src="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/victorian/walker18.jpg" border="0" alt="Megan Garcia (Size 18), Model Service Agency, NYC, modelling for Fashion Bug"></center><p><i>As, in pregnancy and suckling, the abdomen and mammæ necessarily expand, and as they would afterwards collapse and become wrinkled, were not a certain degree of plumpness acquired, that acquisition is essential to beauty in mothers. <strong>Meagreness in them, accordingly, becomes deformity</strong>. </i>(214-15)<p><center><img src="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/victorian/walker36a.jpg" border="0" alt="Tracie Stern, test image with her newborn"></center>


<strong>SUBLIME/BEAUTIFUL CONTRAST:</strong>

<i>The result of these circumstances is that, while man possesses force and majesty, woman is distinguished by beauty and grace. The characteristics of woman are less imposing and more amiable; they inspire less admiration than love. As has been observed, a single trait of rudeness, a severe air, or even the character of majesty, would injure the effect of womanly beauty. </i>(163)<p><center><a href="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/victorian/walker33.jpg" target="_blank"><img src="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/victorian/walker33a.jpg" border="0" alt="Lara Johnson; click to enlarge"></a></center><p><i>The hardships of mountain life are favorable to the stronger development of the locomotive system, which ought more or less to characterise the male; and the luxuriance of the plains is favorable to those developments of the nutritive system, which ought to characterise the female. . . .</i><p><center><a href="http://www.entitled.com.au/page7.html" target="_blank"><img src="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/victorian/walker55a.jpg" border="0" alt="Unidentified model for ''Entitled'' Clothing, Australia"></a></center><p><i>Beauty is also, in some measure, a result of civilisation. Women, accordingly, of consummate beauty are found only in civilised nations. </i>(173-74)<p><center><img src="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/victorian/walker20b.jpg" border="0" alt="Wende Gauthier (size 14), Ford L.A., Look S.F.; test image"></center>


<strong>DEFECTS OF BEAUTY:</strong>

<i><strong>5.</strong> If the secreting vessels, being inactive, furnish neither <strong>the plumpness necessary to beauty</strong> . . . </i>(354)<p><center><img src="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/victorian/walker42.jpg" border="0" alt="Sketch of a plus-size beauty, by John Galliano"></center><p><strong><i>6.</strong> If the neck form not an insensible transition between the body and head, being <strong>sufficiently full to conceal the muscles of the neck</strong> and the flute part of the throat.</i><p><center><img src="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/victorian/walker59.jpg" alt="Christina Schmidt, in a screen capture from an episode of ''Degrassi: The Next Generation'' (Season 3)"></center><p><strong><i>8.</strong> If the waist, tapering little further than the middle of the trunk, and being sufficiently marked, especially in the back and loins, by the approximation of the expanded pelvis, be not also slightly encroached on by the plumpness of all the contiguous parts . . . </i>(355)<p><center><img src="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/victorian/walker26a.jpg" alt="Valerie Lefkowitz modelling for Nordstrom"></center><p><strong><i>10.</strong> If the abdomen be not moderately expanded, its upper portion beginning to swell out . . . </i><p><center><img src="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/victorian/walker45b.jpg" border="0" alt="Anita Ekberg; still image from the film ''Boccaccio '70''"><p></center><p><strong><i>13.</strong> If a remarkable fulness exist not behind the upper part of the haunches, and on each side of the lower part of the spine, commencing as high as the waist, and terminating in the still greater swell of the distinctly separated hips; the flat expanse between these and immediately over the fissure of the hips, being relieved by a considerable dimple on each side, caused by the elevation of all the surrounding parts . . . </i>(356)<p><center><img src="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/victorian/walker19.jpg" alt="Charlotte Coyle"></center><p><strong><i>14.</strong> If the cellular tissue and the plumpness which is connected with it, do not predominate, so as to <strong>obliterate all distinct projection of the muscles</strong>: because this likewise shows that an important portion of the vital system is feeble, and it deprives woman of the forms which are necessary to love . . . </i>(357)<p><center><img src="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/victorian/walker02a.jpg" alt="Sophie Dahl in 1997, which she exhibited the soft fullness of a plus-size model"></center><p><strong><i>Nothing else can completely compensate, in woman, for the absolute want of plumpness</strong>. The features of meager persons are hard; they have a dry and arid physiognomy; the mouth is without charm; the colour is without freshness; their limbs seem ill-united with their body; and all their movements are abrupt and coarse.</i><p><center><a href="http://www.torrid.com/store/product.asp?LS=0&RN=206&ITEM=531924" target="_blank"><img src="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/victorian/walker60.jpg" alt="Kelsey Olson modelling for Torrid; click to view image source" border="0"></a></center><p><strong><i>18.</strong> If the almost entire absorption of adipose substance have finally left the bones angular, the muscles and other parts permanently rigid, and the skin dry; because that indicates decay of the vital system, and characterises age. </i>(357-58)<p><center><img src="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/victorian/walker57.jpg" border="0" alt="Amy Graham, former Ford 12+ model"></center><p><strong><i>19.</strong> If the skin be not fine, soft, and white, delicate, thin and transparent, fresh and animated; if the complexion be not pure and vivid; if the hair be not fine, soft, and luxuriant; and if the nails be not smooth, transparent, and rose-coloured: because these likewise show the feebleness of that system which is most important to woman. </i>(358)<p><center><a href="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/victorian/walker52.jpg" target="_blank"><img src="http://www.judgmentofparis.com/forum/victorian/walker52b.jpg" border="0" alt="Unidentified model for ''Entitled'' Clothing, Australia; click to enlarge"></a></center></blockquote><p><center>* * *</center><p>In the final section, above, we have illustrated Walker's descriptions of the "defects of beauty" <i>not</i> with examples of models who suffer from these aesthetic impediments, but with models who are <i>free</i> of these defects--and in fact, who embody the ideal of feminine beauty that Walker specifies throughout his text. (This is done in the interest of keeping this site a waif-free environment.) It would be all-too-easy to find examples of women who exhibit these aesthetic flaws. One need only turn on a television, or watch a Hollywood movie, or glance at the magazines on the news-stands, to see countless examples of women who suffer from all of the deficiencies listed above.

And that, ultimately, is one of the greatest lessons that we can learn from this exploration of Victorian Beauty. The aesthetic ideal of the 1800s was, point for point, an <i>inversion</i> of our media-imposed modern standards. There is absolutely no reason why today's "beauty guidelines" should be considered superior to those of the Victorian Era. In fact, it is obvious from any examination of aesthetic history that it is <i><strong>we</strong></i> who are in the wrong, that our modern standards are an artificial aberration, and that the Victorian veneration of soft fullness--identical as it was with the concept of beauty of every era that preceded it--is the natural and healthy feminine ideal.

Let us hope to see this timeless ideal of beauty return to cultural prominence, in our own day and age.

.................

<strong>Work Cited:</strong>

Walker, Alexander. <i>Beauty; Illustrated by an Analysis and Classification of Beauty in Woman, with a Critical View of the Hypotheses of Humen, Hogarth, Burke, Knight, Alison, etc. and of the Hypotheses of Beauty in Sculpture and Painting, by Leonardo da Vinci, Winckelmann, Mengs, Bossi, etc.</i> London: Henry G. Bohn, 1852.

Kaitlynn
3rd November 2006, 03:00
Nothing else can completely compensate, in woman, for the absolute want of plumpness</strong>. The features of meager persons are hard; they have a dry and arid physiognomy; the mouth is without charm; the colour is without freshness; their limbs seem ill-united with their body; and all their movements are abrupt and coarse.
Reading this post was like stepping into the light. It's incredibly liberating to find that in any other time, the very traits of emaciation and androgyny that characterize most modern "stars" and models (and that the <strike>diet</strike> starvation industry promotes as some kind of "norm") would rightly be seen as unattractive and unfeminine, and that the opposite features, the traits of soft fullness, would be viewed as ideal.

I'm not surprised that the Victorian Era idealized plus-size beauty. I've always noted that most of the literary works quoted on this site's survey page are from the 19th century. Walker's fascinating text shows that today's plus-size models really are the living incarnations of timeless beauty.

M. Lopez
4th November 2006, 17:24
the plumpness necessary to beauty</strong> . . .
It's so extraordinary to read the excerpts from this work, this apotheosis of the timeless ideal of femininity, and to discover that in every age prior to ours, "plumpness" was considered just as essential to perfect beauty as blonde tresses, or sapphire eyes. Why are those traits - blonde hair and blue eyes - still considered marks of beauty, while being full-figured is not? Why the other characteristics, and not this one? Why shouldn't today's actresses and models be idealized for the same traits for which women were glorified in the past - well-fed curves included?

Our modern standards don't make any sense, while the timeless ideal just instinctively feels...right.

All of these posts about Medieval, Renaissance, and Victorian Beauty show that the feminine ideal was an organic whole that developed naturally, over time. The withered, ropy-muscled look that is advocated for women today is clearly the "odd one out," a deviation from the natural ideal. No wonder women suffer so much trying to attain it! Their bodies are rebelling, instinctively desiring to attain the fuller, softer state that is natural to them.

Think of how much happier, healthier, and more beautiful women would be, if they aspired to these natural womanly ideals of perfection, rather than today's artificial, unfeminine standards.

Emily
11th December 2006, 23:39
Reading about Alexander Walker's wonderful book reminded me of a discussion that appeared on this forum about a year ago, called "Victorian Vogue." It's worth revisiting:

http://www.judgmentofparis.com/board/showthread.php?t=246

This was when Victorian elements in fashion were just making a reappearance. The post introducd an article talking about why the Victorian style becoming popular again today.

Some the observations about the then-emerging trend included:

"Their clothes emphasized the hips and bustline, says Kerri Atter, curator of Denver's Molly Brown House Museum. "It was a very feminine look. The figure was curvaceous."
The information from Walker's book, about what the ideal of Victorian beauty really was, fully supports this observation.

The article's theory about why Victorian fashion retains its popularity seems more valid than ever:

"There's an emphasis on nostalgia -- we're harking back to an earlier time with its positive aesthetics and sentiments," Ogle said. "It's also a reaction to the fact that in recent years we've had more simplistic styles for men and women that were androgynous. So there's a reaction to that, a turn back to more feminine clothing"
(and to more feminine figures -- I hope...)

And incidentally, I still think that a magazine conceived as a "Victorian <i>Vogue</i>," with timeless tenets of fashion updated for the present day, and featuring models who embody the full-figured Victorian ideal of beauty, as outlined above, would be the most captivating and compulsively readable magazine in the world.